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Lecturer at University of Moratuwa, Sri Lanka for Communication Engineering

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  Optical fibre glossary ( download the document)
Absorption: in an OF, the loss of Optical power, resulting from conversion of that power into heat.

Scattering: The changes in direction of light confined within an OF, occurring due to imperfection in the core & cladding, Scattering causes no changes in the wavelength of the radiation.

Acceptance Angle: The angle within which the OF will accept light for transmission along its core. This angle is measured from the centre of the core.


Introduction to PCM - Pulse Code Modulation (You can download or view the each chapter seperately.Note:All the file are in Adobe Reader format)

Today we are living in digital era.Pulse Code Modulation plays a vital role in digital transmission.Introduction to Pulse code Modulation is a attempt to explain the pulse code modulation in detail.


 Preface    --  Dedication
History of Communication
Chapter 1 -  Voice Transmission
Chapter 2 -  Network Concepts
Chapter 3 -  Sampling Theorem
Chapter 4 -  Quantizing
Chapter 5 -  Encoding
Chapter 6 -  Time Division Multiplexing (TDM)
Chapter 7 -  Signalling
Chapter 8 -  Waveforms
Chapter 9 -  Repeaters
Chapter 10 -High Density Bi-Polar 3 (HDB3)                --BlockDiagram             --PCM Photos      At a glance
    Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchical Transmission Systems
The PDH transmission system was very popular towards the end of the last millennium and today this has become outdated due to the introduction of SDH Systems. However understanding the concepts that have been adopted to achieve PDH system will be an added advantage for any academic t visualize the latest theories of SDH.
  Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)
The beauty of digital transmission is the ability that can be multiplex of much information separated in minute time such as Pico seconds in one transmission media. Earlier this has been achieved by plesiochronous digital hierarchy. This has its own drawbacks. The American Sonnet system has been adapted to suit both American and European systems resulted the introduction of SDH technology. The book presented here is in the form of slides so that the reader can understand the concepts which have been used in the SDH technology.
Characteristics of SDH
SDH Fundamentals
Path Overhead and Pointers
SDH Major operational components
SDH at a Glance
SDH Networks
Full SDH Presentation

Common Channel Signaling is widely used in the present day telephone and data networks. To understand the concept of Common Channel Signaling it is advisable to have a general knowledge about the signaling that has been used prior to Common Channel Signaling in the telephone networks. This too will be available in this website in time to come.
The following chapters will explain the concepts of Common Channel Signaling and the practical application will be uploaded to the website in time to come.

Chapter 1 - Concepts of Common Channel Signaling
Chapter 2 - Error Control Techniques adopted for Common Channel Signaling

Chapter 3-Major Physical Feature of Common Channel Signaling

Chapter 4-Practical application of common channel Signaling.

Chapter 5-Complete Message of Common Channel Signaling

Chapter 6-Structure of CCITT No7 Signaling system

    Error Control

Error control plays a vital role in communication. Human to human communication without their knowledge they carry out error control to update their knowledge. But when the error control is applied to equipment to equipment the error control adopted by human has to be evolved to suit for the equipment for the proper reception of correct data. Hence in the modern communication techniques error control plays a vital role when data is sent from one corner of the globe to another corner without any corruption of data. The following chapters will allow the reader to understand how an error control is affected in non-real time systems which is being deployed in the latest communication systems.

Chapter 1-Error Control
Chapter 2-Basic types of Error Detection
Chapter 3-Cyclic Redundancy Code or Frame Check Sequence
Chapter 4-Theoretical_background_of_Cyclic_Redundancy_Code
   Traffic Engineering
Traffic engineering will allow you to study of using resources effectively this subject is generally neglected by many professionals thus causing much wastage to the organizations. In this book attempt is made to allow the reader to understand what is traffic engineering and the application of theories with respect to telecommunication networks.
Traffic Engineering
    IP Address lecture
     IP Address