SS7 signaling backward error correction is deployed. Explain the difference
between basic method and preventive cycle retransmission of error correction.
Clearly explain the sequence control field.
Geographical location of the customer
Domestic Transport Network
In the basic method of error correction station A is sending 5 messages to
station B.Draw the signaling diagram that you may observe from station A to
station B to show the above transaction. Clearly explain the sequence control
Other country’s Domestic Transport Network
In practice, non-linear quantizing is deployed as against linear quantizing,
explain the reasons behind. 256 levels are used for non-linear quantizing and
there are 8 segments each positive and negative sample. Explain the basic
characteristics of non-linear quantizing used for European system (the A-law
signal compression of 13 linear segments)
quantized level will be converted to binary before transporting the quantized
(related to the sample) into the transmission media. Assuming a telephone will
maximum of +3072 mV calculate the encoded format that will be sent in the
media for the following sample values.
i. + 2210mV
ii. + 128mV
iii. – 14mV
Division Multiplexing (TDM) is deployed in the PCM system in order to maximize
the utilization of the transmission media. Explain briefly the TDM systems
deployed in the Europe and America / Japan.
the basic elements of a fixed telephone network.
practice, non-linear quantizing is deployed as against linear quantizing,
explain the reasons behind.
256 levels are used for non-linear quantizing and there are 8 segments for each
positive and negative sample. Explain the basic characteristics of non-linear
quantizing used for European system (the A-law signal compression of 13 linear
.Draw a block diagram of PCM clearly explaining how a basic frame structure is
achieved in each block.
A PCM system will comprise of sampling, quantizing and encoding. Explain each
Three consecutive voice samples in a 30 channel PCM system are
identified as follows.
Draw the wave forms that you can observe in the transmission media, assuming
(Assuming A-Law compression for non-linear quantizing)
What are the applications of TS0 and TS16 in the PCM frame.
.Briefly explain why higher order multiplexing is necessary in
telecommunication.In SMW4 submarine cable system, STM-64 is used which is
equivalent to 10Gbit/s. Briefly Explain how a bit in a sample is multiplexed
and de-multiplexed if used SMW4
transmission is essential in today’s telecommunication as it is the most
efficient way of reproducing the transmitted signal at the receiving
Explain the above statement with reference to different stages in digital
that there are no customers connected at Ratmalana Master
exchange, what is the maximum traffic that the Master exchange can
handle. (Assume no other connections from Master exchange to other
exchanges and this will work as a closed Switching network.)
Clearly explain the difference between PDH and SDH multiplexing methods.
STM-1 Frame structure is defined by 9x270 Matrix, each point of the Matrix is a
byte (8 bits).Show that STM-1 will carry 155.52 Mbps.
The following shows the STM-1 frame. Explain the importance of each area shown.